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Post  THE GIVEAWAY BLOG!! on Tue Dec 24, 2013 8:56 am

RTC

Short for real-time clock, RTC is an IC clock that is battery powered (from the CMOS battery) and located on the computer motherboard. The RTC allows the computer to regulates the timing and speed of all computer functions.

For example, the RTC keeps track of the second, minute, hour, day, month, and year and also is responsible for making sure all the signals sent between the devices are sent at the right intervals.

The term is used to avoid confusion with ordinary hardware clocks which are only signals that govern digital electronics, and do not count time in human units. RTC should not be confused with real-time computing, which shares its three-letter acronym, but does not directly relate to time of day.

Although keeping time can be done without an RTC,[1] using one has benefits:
Low power consumption [2] (important when running from alternate power)
Frees the main system for time-critical tasks
Sometimes more accurate than other methods
A GPS receiver can shorten its startup time by comparing the current time, according to its RTC, with the time at which it last had a valid signal.[3] If it has been less than a few hours, then the previous ephemeris is still usable.

Most RTCs use a crystal oscillator,[7][8] but some use the power line frequency.[9] In many cases the oscillator's frequency is 32.768 kHz.[7] This is the same frequency used in quartz clocks and watches, and for the same reasons, namely that the frequency is exactly 215 cycles per second, which is a convenient rate to use with simple binary counter circuits.

Many integrated circuit manufacturers make RTCs, including Epson, Intersil, IDT, Maxim, NXP Semiconductor, Texas Instruments and STMicroelectronics. The RTC was introduced to PC compatibles by the IBM PC/AT in 1984, which used a MC146818 RTC. Later Dallas Semiconductor made compatible RTCs, which was often used in older personal computers, and are easily found on motherboards because of their distinctive black battery cap and silkscreened logo. In newer systems the RTC is integrated into the southbridge chip.[10]
Some microcontrollers have a real-time clock built in, generally only the ones with many other features and peripherals.

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